Nursing Diagnosis and Care Plan of Urinary Tract Infection

So the focus of this care plan for Urinary Tract Infections include all the efforts you can undertake to get your patients relief from pain and discomfort, increase their knowledge of preventive measures and treatment regimen and save the patient from any kind of complications. This should be taken note of and should be kept under observation, so as the disease do not worsen.

This is one of the most common diagnoses in nursing home residents. There is substantial uncertainty in the diagnosis of symptomatic urinary infection in this population. Diagnostic accuracy is compromised by limitations in communication and in the clinical assessment of signs and symptoms in elderly residents with functional and mental impairment.

Impaired Urinary Elimination

Impaired Urinary Elimination: Dysfunction in urinary elimination.

May be related to

Frequent urination, urgency, and hesitancy.
Possibly evidenced by

  • Dysuria.
  • Urinary frequency; urge.
  • Urinary hesitancy.
  • Desired Outcomes
  • . Urinary frequency; urge.
  • Urinary hesitancy.
  • Desired Outcomes

The client will achieve normal urinary elimination pattern, as evidenced by the absence sign of urinary disorders (urgency, oliguria, dysuria).
The client will demonstrate behavioral techniques to prevent urinary infection.

After several decades of being plagued with urinary incontinence from an overactive bladder/ stress incontinence. Which has been confirmed by tests?
I am interested in how overactive symptoms can be controlled better.
I read over the years certain food and fluids may have a tendency to irritate the lining of the bladder. And best be avoided if you are affected.
I have experienced personally Alcohol chocolate results in an increase in frequency and urgency going to the toilet to urinate more.
So what about the other foods that can annoy the bladder function spicy foods curries chilies peppers. Tomatoes paste sour cream oranges lemons because of the citrus juice.
I must confess all the above dietary foods I regularly digest.
Wondering If I should try to eliminate the from mentioned foods from my diet to see if my urinary incontinence improves may become less troublesome better managed?
Any thoughts what works successfully.

Nursing Diagnosis for Urinary Tract Infections

  1. Acute Pain
    related to: inflammation and infection of the urethra, bladder, and other urinary tract structures.
  2. Impaired Urinary Elimination
    related to: frequent urination, urgency, and hesitancy.
  3. Disturbed Sleep Pattern
    related to: pain and nocturia.
  4. Hyperthermia
    related to: the inflammatory reaction.
  5. Imbalanced Nutrition, Less Than Body Requirements
    related to: anorexia.
  6. The risk for Fluid Volume Deficit
    related to: excessive evaporation and vomiting.
  7. Anxiety
    related to: crisis situations, coping mechanisms are ineffective.
  8. Knowledge Deficit: about the condition, prognosis, and treatment needs
    related to: the lack of resources.

Decreased Cardiac Output Nursing Diagnosis and Care Plan

Good blood circulation indicates a good cardiac function. The heart or the cardiovascular system is the one responsible in providing normal blood circulation all throughout the body. In order for all the systems and organs to function, it needs blood which carries oxygen to have a better functioning of all the body systems.

The heart is known to supply blood all over the body systems and returning blood towards the heart itself. So the blood should be sufficient enough to be able to reach all the parts of the body and ensure that the level and also the flow is in adequate range with this it is considered to be in a good state and the body is also in a good condition.

But at times the heart is affected much and there wouldn’t be sufficient supply of blood to the body then, in such cases the body needs more of oxygenation, where there is no proper supply for the body parts then there would be this implementation the cardiac output.

Synopsis of Decreased Cardiac Output

With this cardiac output there can be many diseases that can be cured and through which there will be a good functioning of the boy parts and furthermore helps the body to be in a healthy state, without any sort of disturbance.

Through this cardiac output these are the strokes that can be saved from- the person who is suffering from hypertension, valvular heart disease, drug effects, cardiomyopathy, pulmonary disease, fluid overload, electoral imbalance and other sorts of deficiency.All these can be cured through the cardiac output.

The cardiac output is the amount of blood that is being pumped out by the heart. The amount of cardiac is computed by multiplying the heart rate, the heart beats which is measured by minutes,and the stroke volume, that is, the amount of blood which is pumped per heartbeat.

Nursing Diagnosis (Treatment) of Decreased Cardiac Output

For the Decreased Cardiac Output, the patient should be monitored in the vital signs, the blood pressure, the respiratory tract, heartbeat. With this information the patient can be under constant observation and by this it also makes the patient to get recovered by the constant observation and these signs will actually help in tracking out the root cause of the pain and also ensures us at an early stage in the prevention of the worsening of the underlying cardiac problems.

This indeed helps in making sure of the kind of treatment that should be given to the patient atg hand and open up the possible ways in making the disease to go low.

Make sure that you are keeping a record of the patient’s intake and the outtake. The breath should be noted and should be kept under observation after each implementation of the treatment.
This helps to monitor the imbalances that are caused in between and also helps to detect or indicate the decrease in cardiac output.

Ensure the intakes that the patient is taking, the amount of fluid that is getting inside the patient’s body should be monitored. Through this observation of the fluid intakes, the actual line of imbalance can be monitored. Be cautious on the fluid intake and the restrictions for the patients with decreased cardiac output. This may not be beneficial to the patients.

Identify the radiation, chest pain, and the quality of the heartbeat and the patient in his experience. With this the blood flow is actually monitored.

Decreased Cardiac Output Care Plan

Check the arterial blood gases and electrolytes levels, including potassium.
Low or high levels of potassium are harmful to health. So the levels should be accurately monitored and also the count should actually be maintained.

Monitor the laboratory tests and ensure the count of the heartbeat and also the levels of potassium which is considered to be as an important part of the treatment.
This will be helpful in knowing the actual cause of the decrease of the cardiac output and will further be helpful in making sure that the next step of the treatment and the medication will further be prescribed.

Make sure that the X rays and the ECGs are reviewed, through this the actual condition of the lungs and the heart is noted and also the medication can be given accordingly. The frequent check on this would be of a great help that will help in renewing the process and also helping out the stress that is being caused.

Monitor the howel function. Provide the stool softeners as ordered. 
The straining when defecating can lead to dysrhythmia, decreased cardiac function and sometimes it also leads to death.

In hard conditions make sure that the patient is notified that there should be the limitation in their daily activities and by this, the patient can be at rest and also makes the person be at rest, that which makes the person to keep the body parts at rest. In this way, the body parts will be good enough to function at the time needed and another excessive workload will not be of the burden to the patient.

With the increase in the work, the Heart also increases the beats and with this it makes the heart burdened, and thus it slowly weakens the functioning of the heart, and would further result in needing of more of cardiac output and also the circulation going to all parts of the body.
So, this is indeed a very stressful process, where there is much pressure made to the heart and also makes it very less effective.

Associate the person to heart failure program or cardiac rehabilitation program for the education, evaluation and guided support to increase activity and rebuild life. This indeed makes or helps the person to recognize the actual activities that are going through, and would eventually make the person to ensure the level of life that is going through.

This further makes the patient to be careful and also to realize the importance and the stress note that the person should be going through.

A thoroughly monitored exercise program can help in improving the capacity and also helps in functioning of the body and also further helps in making the activities to be in a functional way rather than disclosing the activities in a very harsh manner.

Explain the importance of smoking cessation and also help the patient to be aware of alcohol intake if the person is a drug addict, let the person be ensured that inhaling drugs can indeed make the heart more weak and also the medication may not be able to be applied on the patient’s body.

Vices do not give benefit to the heart and overall well being of the patient. This indeed marks heavy stress on the patient and the cardiac output will be of a heavy choice. Though the person is under total medication, the person should be much aware that the patient should equivalently be much responsible for the actions that the person is making up. This marks as one of the most prominent in making the diagnosis to be made in accordance with the medical procedures prescribed.

Make sure that the patient skin color and also the moisturized part of the skin. This will further enhance the impending decrease in cardiac output.
Check for patient’s peripheral pulses and capillary refill. The pulse rate should be noted and should be kept updated in every recheck of the patient body.

Presence of weak pulses and slow capillary refill can indicate decrease cardiac output which may need specific intervention.

Weigh the patient regularly prior to breakfast. This should be taken on a serious note, as this may lead to many internal conflicts and also makes the body to struggle with no accordance.
Weight gain can indicate an alteration in the blood circulation of the body. It can show extreme fluid retention which is the cause of gaining weight.

Record the urine output of the patient. This also stands one of the main course of retaining information and further helps in detecting the actual cause of the problem. Decreased urine output can be a sign of decreased perfusion going to the kidneys.

Final Words

Assess oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry both at rest and during and after ambulation. This is counted as a sign to make the keynote of the body under hard conditions.  It will detect the possible signs of decreased cardiac output through a decrease oxygen saturation level. So this sort of signs should not be ignored and further make the necessary medication possible.

Check symptoms for chest pain with or without undergoing activity or exercise. This is another great way in order to check the way the person is responding by the conditions of the body.  Chest pain often occurs if the heart is unable to meet the body’s needs for sufficient blood perfusion.

Nursing Diagnosis for Fluid Volume Deficit (or) Dehydration Care Plan

Fluid volume deficit (also known as deficient fluid volume or hypovolemia) describes the loss of extracellular fluid from the body. Extracellular fluid is the body fluid not contained within individual cells. It constitutes about 20% of our body weight and includes blood plasma, lymph, spinal cord fluid, and the fluid between cells. Importantly, this fluid isn’t just water—it also contains electrolytes and other essential solutes.

Monitor for the existence of factors causing deficient fluid volume (e.g., gastrointestinal losses, difficulty maintaining oral intake, fever, uncontrolled type II diabetes mellitus, diuretic therapy). Early identification of risk factors and early intervention can decrease the occurrence and severity of complications from deficient fluid volume. The gastrointestinal system is a common site of abnormal fluid loss.

Watch for early signs of hypovolemia, including weakness, muscle cramps, and postural hypotension. Late signs include oliguria; abdominal or chest pain; cyanosis; cold, clammy skin; and confusion.

What Is Fluid Volume Deficit?

Fluid volume deficit is often used interchangeably with the term “dehydration,” but they aren’t exactly the same thing. Dehydration refers specifically to the loss of body water as opposed to body fluid. What’s the difference? Electrolytes. If a patient has just lost water but no electrolytes, they’ll have slightly different issues—and require slightly different treatment—then a patient who has lost wholesale body fluids, which contains water and electrolytes

Monitor total fluid intake and output every 8 hours and every hour for the unstable client.
Watch trends in output for 3 days; include all routes of intake and output and note color and a specific gravity of urine. Monitoring for trends for 2 to 3 days gives a more valid picture of the client’s hydration status than monitoring for a shorter period. Dark-colored urine with increasing specific gravity reflects increased urine concentration.

Monitor daily weight for sudden decreases, especially in the presence of decreasing urine output or active fluid loss. Weigh client on the same scale with the same type of clothing at the same time of day, preferably before breakfast. Bodyweight changes reflect changes in body fluid volume. A 1-pound weight loss reflects a fluid loss of about 500 ccs.

What Causes Fluid Volume Deficit?

  • Blood loss from cuts/wounds
  • Through the gastrointestinal system: vomiting and diarrhea
  • Abnormally excessive urination (polyuria); can be caused by excessive intake of diuretic substances or medications or from renal disorder.
  • Excessive sweating; typically sweating is more likely to cause dehydration than fluid volume deficit because the body generally expels far more water than electrolytes, but sweating can also cause deficient fluid volume in some cases.
  • Bleeding disorders
  • Burns (because the skin no longer protects against excessive fluid loss)

Monitor vital signs of clients with deficient fluid volume every 15 minutes to 1 hour for the unstable client and every 4 hours for the stable client. Observe for decreased pulse pressure first, then hypotension, tachycardia, decreased pulse volume, and increased or decreased body temperature.  

A decreased pulse pressure is an earlier indicator of a shock than is the systolic blood pressure. Decreased intramuscular volume results in hypotension and decreased tissue oxygenation. The temperature will be decreased as a result of decreased metabolism, or it may be increased if there is infection or hyperglycemia present.

Treatment of Fluid Volume Deficit (or) Dehydration

Check orthostatic blood pressures with client lying, sitting, and standing. A 15 mm Hg drop when upright or an increase of 15 beats/minute in the pulse rate are seen with deficient fluid volume.
Monitor for inelastic skin turgid, thirst, dry tongue and mucous membranes, longitudinal tongue furrows, speech difficulty, dry skin, sunken eyeballs, weakness, and confusion.

Tongue dryness, longitudinal tongue furrows, dryness of the mucous membranes of the mouth, upper body muscle weakness, thirst, confusion, speech difficulty, and drunkenness of eyes are symptoms of deficient fluid volume.

Provide frequent oral hygiene, at least twice a day. Oral hygiene decreases unpleasant tastes in the mouth and allows the client to respond to the sensation of thirst.

Provide fresh water and oral fluids preferred by the client, provide prescribed diet; offer snacks, instruct significant other to assist the client with feedings as appropriate. The oral route is preferred for maintaining fluid balance.

Distributing the intake over the entire 24 hour period and providing snacks and preferred beverages increase the likelihood that the client will maintain the prescribed oral intake.

Provide free water with tube feedings as appropriate. This provides water for replacement of intramuscular or intracellular volume as necessary. Tube feeding has been found to increase the risk of dehydration.

Institute measures to rest the bowel when the client is vomiting or has diarrhea,. Hydrate client with ordered IV solutions if prescribed. The most common cause of deficient fluid volume is gastrointestinal loss of fluid. At times it is preferable to allow the gastrointestinal system to rest before resuming oral intake.

Nursing Care Plan of Dehydration

Provide oral replacement therapy as ordered with a glucose-electrolyte solution when a client has acute diarrhea or nausea or vomiting. Provide small, frequent quantities of slightly chilled solutions.

Maintenance of oral intake stabilizes the ability of the intestines to digest and absorb nutrients; glucose-electrolyte solutions increase net fluid absorption while correcting deficient fluid volume.

Administer antidiarrheals and antiemetics as appropriate. The gastrointestinal tract is a common site for fluid loss. The goal is to stop the loss that results from vomiting or diarrhea.


If the client requires IV fluid replacement, maintain patent IV access, set an appropriate IV infusion flow rate, and administer at a constant flow rate as ordered. Isotopic IV fluids such as 0.9% N/S or lactated ringers allow replacement of intramuscular volume.

Assist with ambulation if the client has postural hypotension. Postural hypotension can cause dizziness, which places the client at higher risk for injury.


Promote skin integrity (e.g., monitor areas for breakdown, ensure frequent weight shifts, prevent shearing, promote adequate nutrition). Deficient fluid volume decreases tissue oxygenation, which makes the skin more vulnerable to breakdown.

Nursing Diagnosis for Anemia – Best Nursing Care Plan

Anemia is a condition where the person goes through the lacking of the level of blood that the person should have in the body. Anemia makes its growth when there are not many healthy red blood cells, then this disease makes its place and start growing in the body by expanding the weakness and diluting more of the cells, and through this the healthy red blood cells are  much diluted and gradually these cells go damaged and there will be not a sufficient amount of blood that the body needs to keep the organs to be functioning.

The Hemoglobin is the main part of the red blood cells, and it is considered to be the main component of the red blood cells. It is this hemoglobin that binds the oxygen and also helps the organs to function properly and also keep the organs healthy and does the functioning of the body to be in a proper condition.

The main issue comes when there are not enough red blood cells that have to be, the count of the red blood cells is quite low and keeps the functioning of the body in a degrading position, it is through this the amount of oxygen that the body needs will not be sufficient enough. The hemoglobin is indeed counted low, so to this, the oxygen that the organs need will be lagging and this is where Anemia starts hitting the body and makes the grow weak.

Causes of Anemia

Etiology

  • Hemolysis (erythrocytes easily broken).
  • Bleeding.
  • Bone marrow suppression (eg by cancer).
  • Nutrient deficiency (nutritional anemia), including iron deficiency, folic acid, pyridoxine, vitamin C and copper.

According to various sources the causes of anemia include:

  • Less consumption of foods containing iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin C, and the elements necessary for the formation of red blood cells.
  • Excessive menstrual blood. Women who are menstruating prone to iron deficiency anemia when much menstrual blood and not enough iron stores.
  • Pregnancy. Pregnant women are prone to anemia because the fetus to absorb iron and vitamins for growth.
  • Certain diseases. Diseases that cause continuous bleeding in the digestive tract such as gastritis and appendicitis can lead to anemia.
  • Certain drugs. Several types of medications can cause stomach bleeding (aspirin, anti-inflammatory, etc.). Other drugs can cause problems in the absorption of iron and vitamins (antacids, birth control pills, antiarthritis, etc.).
  • Retrieval operation of part or all of the stomach (gastrectomy). It can cause anemia because the body absorbs less iron and vitamin B12.
  • Chronic inflammatory diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, thyroid gland problems, some types of cancer and other diseases can cause anemia because they affect the process of the formation of red blood cells.
  • In children, anemia can occur due to hookworm infection, malaria, or dysentery that caused a severe shortage of blood.

There are certain forms of Anemia which are hereditary and often get continued or passed to the next generations. And with this, the infants may be affected at the time of birth and this may lead the child to grow in an unhealthy way.

Nursing Care Plan

Another factor of time is when the women are during their childbearing days and during this time there are more susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia because of the blood loss that the woman face, the loss of blood during the menstruation and it is also during this time that the woman needs more of the blood and the amount of the supply that the person needs is to be in loads of amounts and with this the woman can stand better off during the pregnancy.

Another factor that we can see is in the older people and by this it means that it includes that the people who have crossed a certain age and thus leading into their old age. This type of groups have the chances of being affected by Anemia.

This is caused by either of the old age or through the diet that they are going through, where kind of diet is insufficient to the body, which is in turn named as a poor intake of diet. The other cause would be because of the medical conditions that the person might be going through.

Nursing Interventions

These are based on the data that is assessed by the nurse and also on the symptoms that the patient manifests. With these nursing diagnoses, the patient can be in control and also helps in maintaining the level of blood that is sufficient for the body.

Manage the fatigue, this is considered to be one of the most influential.

Make sure that the patient is prioritizing the activities and through these activities let the there also be a time assigned to take rest.

There should be a proper balance to be maintained between the activity and the rest that the person should be taking. This should be acceptable to the patient and also helps the patient to have a balanced life.

The physical activity is indeed considered to be one of the most prominent and it is also to be held at one of the ways to maintain and keep the body in a good condition.

The patients who are suffering from chronic anemia need to maintain some physical activity and should be doing exercises to make sure that the patient is prevented from deconditioning that results from the inactivity.

Anemia Nursing Diagnosis

Maintaining proper nutrition would far help the patient in keeping a track record of keeping a healthy body.
The nurse should make the patient go on a healthy diet and also help the patient to get enough and adequate nutrition. The essentials nutritions should be maintained by the patient as through this the patient will be able to get the most amount of the blood gets into the body by having a good nutritious meal.

Alcohol intake should be lessened or it should be kept away from the patient. The nurse should make the patient aware that taking or consuming alcohol might make the patient drown all the nutrition that should be needed for the body.

There should be sessions or some teaching that should be made to the patient as through this the patient will be able to make the patient and also their family members to know the actual aspects that the patient need to follow, and through this the person will also be understood about the actual living and the diet intake that the patient should actually follow. The meals should actually be taken in a proper and also there should be scheduling that the patient needs to follow and also learn to keep the body in a functioning way.

The patient should be monitored about the vital signs and also the pulse oximeter readings should be under observation and the readings should be taken closely.
There should be health education given to the patient and instruct the patient to take more of the iron-based foods which help to build up the hemoglobin and thus make the person be stable enough and this also provides much of the improvement in health and also make the body to be stronger.

The iron intake of food should be prescribed by the physician and the food intake should also be scheduled in a proper time and through this, the person will further be helpful to the patient to have a stable body and also make the person grow in health. There should not also be any stress that the patient should be taking.

Nursing Diagnosis for Diabetes – Best Care Plan

Diabetes or diabetes is a metabolic disease where blood glucose levels go on normally high.

This disease is caused by the defective carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized by abnormally in large amounts of sugar in the blood and also urine.

Diabetes is classified into two types- 

type 1- this kind of diabetes is the ‘insulin-independent’ diabetes mellitus which in short is called as IDDM. which in turn is formerly called as the – juvenile-onset diabetes, this kind of diabetes is caused mostly in children and also young adults which these days is considered to be common among the generations and also it has been thoroughly been taking place through, as the ages are being got accustomed to this new kind of diet that is being sold out in the market.

The type 2 kind of diabetes is called as the ’non-insulin’- dependent diabetes mellitus in short is also called as NIDDM. This kind of diabetes is mostly seen in persons of over 40 years old and those who are in their old ages.

Diabetes or diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease where blood glucose levels are abnormally high.

There are these most common symptoms that are seen when the person is usually getting into the state of being delushinsized by the disease, and often mark an eventual body changes which seem to be occurring in a slow process to the body and further gets into the development of Diabetes.

Symptoms of high blood glucose levels include:

  •         Polyuria
  •         Polydipsia
  •         Weight loss
  •         Blurred vision
  •          Increased thirst
  •        Frequent urination
  •         Extreme hunger
  •         Unexplained weight loss
  •         Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there’s not enough available insulin)
  •         Fatigue
  •         Irritability
  •         Slow-healing sores
  •         Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections.

Diabetes Nursing Diagnosis-

Make sure that the patient is instructed to avoid heating pads and always try to wear shoes when the person is walking. With this, the patient will feel a lot better in making a way to live a coordinate lifestyle.
Rationale-  the patients have decreased sensations in the extremities due to peripheral neuropathy.

Another way to diagnosis is reflecting on knowledge. Look for signs of avoidance to learn. This is one of the interventions that is marked in the nursing diagnosis.
Rationale- it reflects on the need to stress the consequences that may happen in lieu of the lack of knowledge.

There should be an identification of the client’s supportive people to those that they need to know the information about the diabetes regimen planned.

Rationale- The clients’ supporters like parents or the spouse need to be provided the right information, and also they should take part in the treatment or the process that the client is undergoing.

When the treatment is under processor when the patient is upheld with the procedure of taking the course getting the medication procedure, the patient should be given only the relevant information.

Rationale- there should be information which is related to the only to the situation. Under the medication procedure, there shouldn’t be any sort misconception or mistreatment or any sort of confusion which should be going on when the medical process is going on.

Make sure that the patient is given written information or the perception of the guidelines that the patient should in turn follow. With all this, there should also be given self-learning guidelines about the proper diet and all the essentials that the patient need during the course of medication.

Rationale- The information which is written will be helpful for the clients and thus it would also be much helpful in future clarification.

Ensure client is knowledgeable about using his own blood glucose monitoring device. The patient should be well versed in knowing about the glucose levels that the patient is going through.
Rationale- Vital in preventing the sudden increase or decrease in blood and glucose levels. This indeed makes the person stable in everyday activities and also helps in maintaining a balanced walk of life.

Diabetes Nurse Care Plan

Rationale- The blood glucose monitoring device is a handy and accurate way of assessing blood glucose levels. Proper usage of this device is essential in detecting unstable blood glucose levels. This indeed is very much useful to the patient and it helps the patient to know the level of sugar that it is consumed in the body.

This is indeed a very good way to make the patient to know about the stress or the kind of congestion that the patient is going through. Educate about balancing food intake with physical activities.

Educate about adjusting home glucose monitoring frequency depending on the client’s risk factors like stress and poor diet. This makes the patient clear about the food that is being taken and also to give a balanced healthy lifestyle and makes the patient follow an adequate diet.

Rationale-To quickly identifies fluctuating blood glucose levels for immediate correction. This indeed is a very helpful way of making the patient to promote healthy living. This also gives a balanced intake of meals and also to maintain the levels of sugar intake and thus stands as a very helpful mode to the patient.

Review and discuss the client’s carbohydrate intake. This makes the patient to be updated and also to be aware of health that the body is processing.

Final Words

Rationale-Blood glucose levels greatly depend on carbohydrate intake. It should be monitored and controlled closely when stabilizing high blood glucose levels. In this way, the patient also feels at peace rather keeping the mind at stake.

Discuss how the client’s anti-diabetic medications work. By this way, the person also feels the level of a healthy life is being gone through and will always be updated. This makes the patient be at a satisfactory mode of living.

Rationale-Essential in ensuring the client understands his treatment regimen to ensure his compliance and adherence. This stands as a very helpful way in order to make the patient understand the state of life that is going through or the medication terms which are being processed, through which the body has maintained or the changes that it has gone through.

Nursing Diagnosis for Pneumonia: 18 Key Points to be Noted

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung which is caused by viruses or bacteria. It is also caused by other microorganisms that are in the atmosphere and this further leads to a higher level of pain which causes the pain to increase more.

And this leads to the congested gas exchange in the lungs. In the United States, it is considered to be the sixth leading disease cause of death.

The symptoms which are responsible for Pneumonia are due to cough, sputum production, pleuritic chest pain, shaking chills, shallow breathing, fever, shortness of breath.

If the person who is suffering from such, then the person should be under medical perceptions and under the continual medication and also be assured to be away from the toxic atmosphere.

The infection that is caught up in the lungs makes the air sacks congested in taking the breath and this slowly increases the rate of heavy breathing, thus leading the person to fall short of breath. This can also make it hard for the person to breathe in enough oxygen that which reaches the bloodstream.

Types of Pneumonia

There are two types of pneumonia: community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or also known as nosocomial pneumonia.

Pneumonia may also be classified depending on its location and radiologic appearance. Bronchopneumonia (bronchial pneumonia) involves the terminal bronchioles and alveoli.

Interstitial (reticular) pneumonia involves inflammatory response within lung tissue surrounding the air spaces or vascular structures rather than the area passages themselves. Alveolar (or acinar) pneumonia involves fluid accumulation in the lung’s distal air spaces. Necrotizing pneumonia causes the death of a portion of lung tissue surrounded by a viable tissue.

Pneumonia is also classified based on its microbiologic etiology – they can be viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan, mycobacterial, mycoplasmal, or rickettsial in origin.

Aspiration pneumonia, another type of pneumonia, results from vomiting and aspiration of gastric or oropharyngeal contents into the trachea and lungs.

Nursing Diagnosis for Pneumonia

  1. Make sure that there is oxygen administered as prescribed.
  2. Keep the respiratory status monitored.
  3. The labored respirations, cyanosis, and cold clammy skin should be under observation.
  4. Promote coughing and deep breathing and also the use of incentives Pyrometer.
  5. Keep the patient in a semi- fowler position to facilitate breathing.
  6. Make sure to promote rest.
  7. There should also be looking after the Promotion of nutrition.
  8. Administer the antibiotics in time.
  9. Make sure that there is a Prevent of further infection.
  10. Educate patients on the importance of energy conservation and effective airway clearance, nutrition, as well as coughing and deep breathing.
  11. Administer the supplemental oxygen as appropriate.
  12. Keep monitoring pulse oximetry.
  13. Provide a high calorie, high protein diet with small frequent meals.
  14. Let the patient be taking 3L of fluids.
  15. Give a balanced rest activity.
  16. Prevent the spread of infection by hand.
  17. washing and the proper disposal of secretions.
  18. Administer antibiotics as prescribed.

COPD Nursing Diagnosis

COPD is a respiratory disease. COPD means Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. With this the person suffers from airflow limitation or is also called as airway destruction.

This COPD mainly involves with two kinds of related diseases known as ‘Chronic Bronchitis and ‘Emphysema’. Though Asthma involves in to much of airway inflammation, mucous plugging, narrow airway, this kind of symptoms also relate to COPD.  

Nursing Diagnosis for COPD

  1. There will be an Ineffective breathing pattern which is

related to: shortness of breath,bronchoconstriction, mucus, airway irritants.

  1. Aso there will be an Ineffective Airway Clearance, wholly

related to: increased sputum production, bronchoconstriction, ineffective cough,

bronchopulmonary infection, fatigue / lack of energy.

  1. There is an Impaired Gas Exchange which is

related to: ventilation perfusion inequality.

4.Mostly there will be an Imbalanced Nutrition: less than body requirements

  1. There is Activity Intolerance

related to: imbalance between oxygen supply with demand.

  1. The person undergoes a Disturbed sleep pattern which is

related to: discomfort, sleeping position.

  1. Anxiety grows and clearly this is

related to: threat to self-concept, threat of death, purposes that are not being met.

  1. Ineffective Individual Coping to others and this further leads to disturbance of the state of mind.

related to: anxiety, lack of socialization, depression, low activity levels and an inability to work.

  1. Self-care Deficit : Bathing / Hygiene Self-care deficit

related to: fatigue secondary to increased respiratory effort and ventilation and oxygenation insufficiency.

  1. Knowledge Deficit

Nurse Pick Up Lines

Nurse Pick Up Lines-

A pick up line is a conversation builder., where two strangers can actually get along for a date. People who have develop their liking for the other person, often come up with pick up lines and try to impress the other person.

So, here are a few pick up lines from the people who are working in the hospitals.
These pick up lines are from a patient to the nurse or in some cases these are from the nurses to the patients. These pick up lines are kinda cheesy, but they have indeed turned out to be the best pick up lines in he most weakest part of their life, where they are dealing through heir unhealthiness and also having their engaging interest towards the other person, who is said to be a stranger.

These are some of the pick up lines which are used and these are considered to be the most common ones which are used.

Pick up Lines for Nurses-

I don’t want an apple a day, because I don’t want you to go away.

  1. Does your left eye hurt, because you have been looking right all day.
  1. I wish I was your coronary artery, so that I could be wrapped around your heart.
  1. Are you my appendix.? Because I don’t understand how you work, but this feeling in my stomach makes me to take you out.
  1. Patient- Have you heard what my Heart was saying?
    Nurse- yes, counted it.
    Patient- so, how many times did it say your name?
  1. I wish the nurse who was here from the previous shift heard it along with the pauses, he just made me to catch his gasping breath.
  1. You must be the one for me, since my selectively permeable membrane let you through.
  1. Look ! I’m dying here, If you want me to survive. Please go out with me.
  1. Please don’t be too sweet, i may get Diabetes.
  1. Did you hear that, even my heart mummers, ‘I Love You’.
  1. Patient- Have we met before?
    Nurse- NO!
    Patient- Ithink we had studied in the same class, we had Chemistry.
  1. Nurse- please give me your hand.
    Patient- I will wholeheartedly give my hands to you forever, my love.
  1. Are you lost Ma’am? Because Heaven is too long from here.
  1. I am hemophilic for you, because you paint ,my town red.
  1. Oh! Look, a beautiful Angel. I never knew that I would be in Heaven soon.
  1. Did you damage my cerebellum? Because i have been falling all over the place for you.
  1. Patient- Do you like Kids?
    Nurse- Of COURSE I do.
    Patient- Great! I have a daughter who needs a Mom.
  1. Do you have an inhaler, You took my breath away.
  1. Do you have a band-aid, because I just scraped my knee falling for you.
  1. Patient- Can I donate my organ?
    Nurse-  Yes you can!
    Patient- Great ! I would like to give my heart to You.
  1. Do you have my other lung? Because i have been Lung-ing for You.
  1. Patient- You should also get your Temperature to check..
    Nurse-  But Why?
    Patient- Because You look Hot.
  2. You make my Dopamine levels all silly
  1. Is is just my olfactory or do you really smell so good?
  1. Are you ‘Broca’s Aphasia’? Because you leave me speechless.
  1. I’m not an organ donor, But i would like give my heart to You.
  1. You breathe Oxygen? We have so much in common.
  1. Can you be my proximal?, because i don’t want to distal you.
  1. Blood is red, Cyanosis is blue, I get tachycardia when I think of you.
  1. Can I take your temperature? Because Your looking Hot today
  1. I think you are suffering from the lack of Vitamin ME.
  1. Your calves must be aching, because you have been marching through my mind all day.
  1. I think I’m developing tics, because I just can’t help to wink at you.
  1. Hai, are you conditioned, because you are making me drool.
  1. Excuse me! I think you dropped something, MY JAW.

Ineffective Airway Clearance

Ineffective Airway Clearance-

The inability to clear out the secretions or the obstructions from the respiratory tract to maintain a clear airway. There should be natural and also  effortless breathing. There are some people who are not capable who have the incapability of breathing as the airway is blocked and the lungs have the risk in taking breathe. The mechanism is that the person should be given the treatment and make sure that the person is being treated by giving the necessary precautions and also help the patient to clear the airway and give the person a good and an easy way of breathing.

Nursing Diagnosis-

Make sure that there is an assess airway for the patency.
The airway should be maintained and that should always be first priority, when the person is facing trauma, acute neurological decompensation or the cardiac arrest.

The assess respirations should be noted about the quality, rate, pattern, the depth, the use of accessory muscles and also the position of breathing.
Through this the respiration condition is known and also tracts the abnormal charges that are going through. This indeed a good way in making a clear idea about the actual track of the problem.

Test cough for the effectiveness  and also for the productivity. With this the actual rate of breath can be counted.  It considers the possible causes that are responsible for the ineffective cough, respiratory muscle fatigue, severe bronchospasm and other indications that are much in to note.

Let the presence of sputum, assess the quality and also the colour, the amount, odour and the consistency should be noted, and thus taken into consideration. A sign of infection is discoloured sputum, there will be indications  the actual root of the problem.

There should be the monitorization of the arterial blood gases. The increase in the paco2 and in its decrease  show the signs of the respiratory failure. This can be an indication to keep the medication under a proper way and enable the patient to know the condition and keep the medication under process.

Make a note of the pain in the airway. Through which the pain area is known and further makes a proper root of defining the actual treatment that is needed. The postoperative pain can result in shallow breathing and an ineffective cough. This makes a mere disturbance to the patient.and further increases the breathing, making a hardened way of making the patient to keep in control of the patient’s regular activities.

Make sure that the patient is assisted in performing coughing and also breathing manoeuvres.
This helps in knowing the productivity of the cough and also helps in checking the level of the airway passage that is taken by the patient.

Let the patient be encouraged of the oral intake of the fluids and should be kept in note that this should be kept within the limits of the cardiac reserve. This indeed stands one of the useful way of letting the methods to be known and further helps in preventing of the secretions to be dried.

Learning is indeed another way in helping the patient to know the condition and also it helps their family to keep up the pace in medication and also about the diet, which will indeed make the patient to turn into a good condition.  The patient will be able to understand the rationale and also the appropriate techniques to keep the the clear of secretions, this indeed is one of the most useful and also considered to be one of the most prominent methods in making the patient to be aware of the condition that the body is going through.

Nursing Diagnosis for Hypertension: Types & Key Steps to Follow

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Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe complications and increases the risk of heart disease, stroke and death.

Hypertension and Heart Disease are global health concerns which the world is facing today. The World Health Organization has stated that the consumption of salt in diet is usually going high, and thus leading to Hypertension.

Blood Pressure forces the blood to push against to your arteries and each time your heart beats, the blood is pumped into the arteries, when the flow is blood is higher than the usual rate then it eventually leads to the cause of hypertension.

To get this fixed there are many diagnosis that are brought out to bring down the rate of high blood pressure and get in to a normal rate of pumping blood.

There are care plans which are developed in various formats, in regard to decrease the hyper tension that is caused by the excessive consumption of salt or due to unhealthy diet.

The nursing diagnoses are considered to be one of the most important ways to prevent the person from getting into a high rate of danger.

Categories of Hypertension

  1. Normal blood pressure- 120/80 mmHg and lower
  2. Prehypertension- 120-139 / 80-89 mmHg
  3. Stage 1 hypertension- 140-159 / 90-99 mmHg
  4. Stage 2 hypertension- 160 / 100 mmHg or higher.

Nursing Diagnosis for Hypertension

1. Make sure that you monitor blood pressure, both the arms/thighs should be measured three times, the cuff size should be correct and the technique should be accurate.

Rationale- the comparison of the pressures provides a clear understanding of the vascular involvement and the scope of the problem is known. There is also systolic hypertension which raises the risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and ischemic heart disease.

2. The dependent/general edema should be noted.

Rationale- This indicates the failure of heart, renal or vascular impairment.

3. The quality of the central, peripheral pulses, presence should be noted.

Rationale- Pulses in legs/feet may be diminished, which is reflecting effects of vasoconstriction

4. The moisture, temperature, skin color should be observed.

Rationale- Presence of pallor; cool, moist skin; and delayed capillary refill time may be due to peripheral vasoconstriction or reflect cardiac decompensating/decreased output.

5. Auscultate the breathe sounds and the heart tones.

Rationale- S4 sound is considered to be very common in hypertensive patients, due to the presence of atrial hypertrophy. And the development of S3 indicates impaired functioning.

6. Have calm, restful surroundings, minimize environment activity and also noise. Make sure that there are a limited number of visitors and the length of the stay is bounded.

Rationale- Helps lessen sympathetic stimulation and that leads to the promotion of relaxation.

7. There should be maintenance of activity restrictions, there must be uninterrupted rest which should be scheduled and also assist the patient with self-care activities that are necessary.

Rationale- It reduces the stress level and tension that affect the blood pressure.

8. There should be relaxation technique, distraction from the routine burden, guided imagery.

Rationale- it reduces the stimuli, and produces a calming effect, which gradually gives a decrease in the blood pressure.