Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung which is caused by viruses or bacteria. It is also caused by other microorganisms that are in the atmosphere and this further leads to a higher level of pain which causes the pain to increase more.
And this leads to the congested gas exchange in the lungs. In the United States, it is considered to be the sixth leading disease cause of death.
The symptoms which are responsible for Pneumonia are due to cough, sputum production, pleuritic chest pain, shaking chills, shallow breathing, fever, shortness of breath.
If the person who is suffering from such, then the person should be under medical perceptions and under the continual medication and also be assured to be away from the toxic atmosphere.
The infection that is caught up in the lungs makes the air sacks congested in taking the breath and this slowly increases the rate of heavy breathing, thus leading the person to fall short of breath. This can also make it hard for the person to breathe in enough oxygen that which reaches the bloodstream.
Types of Pneumonia
There are two types of pneumonia: community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or also known as nosocomial pneumonia.
Pneumonia may also be classified depending on its location and radiologic appearance. Bronchopneumonia (bronchial pneumonia) involves the terminal bronchioles and alveoli.
Interstitial (reticular) pneumonia involves inflammatory response within lung tissue surrounding the air spaces or vascular structures rather than the area passages themselves. Alveolar (or acinar) pneumonia involves fluid accumulation in the lung’s distal air spaces. Necrotizing pneumonia causes the death of a portion of lung tissue surrounded by a viable tissue.
Pneumonia is also classified based on its microbiologic etiology – they can be viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan, mycobacterial, mycoplasmal, or rickettsial in origin.
Aspiration pneumonia, another type of pneumonia, results from vomiting and aspiration of gastric or oropharyngeal contents into the trachea and lungs.
Risk Factors Of Pneumonia
- Age: The very young and the very old are at increased risk for the development of pneumonia.
- The very young have immature immune systems, lack of previous antibody-building exposures to pathogens, and narrow airways. The very old have weaker immune systems and more problems
with cough and gag reflexes.
- Compromised immunity due to underlying chronic disease, such as AIDS, sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, diabetes, stroke, congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recipients of chemotherapy or organ transplantation are also at increased risk for developing pneumonia.
- Smokers, asthmatics, and alcoholics.
- Recent history of upper respiratory tract infection or thoracic or abdominal surgery.
- Residents of elderly care facilities are also at increased risk (Buckley & Schub, 2012).
People in hospitals and nursing homes are also at high risk for acquiring pneumonia. The sheer size of a healthcare facility makes sanitation challenging. Bacteria is known to survive by colonizing for decades inside plumbing systems (Todd, 2005). Viruses and bacteria can be cultured from hospital walls, equipment, and even the air.
Also, there are many people coming in and out, inadvertently spreading germs.Hospitalized patients are further at risk for pneumonia from the care they receive. Improper positioning is a set-up for pneumonia, with the supine position putting the patient at greater risk (Pruitt & Jacobs, 2006). Intubation and improper handling of ventilator circuits greatly increases the chance of introducing bacteria into the airways (Adis Data Information, 2011).
Lack of hydration, malnutrition, poor oral hygiene, and invasive nasogastric or endothelial tubing all support bacterial growth. Stress ulcer medication may alter the normal gastric pH, allowing certain bacteria to flourish and colonize in the respiratory tract when regurgitated and aspirated. Sedation and debilitation increase the likelihood of this scenario, especially if the patient is lying in a supine position.
Nursing Diagnosis And Care Plan for Pneumonia
- Make sure that there is oxygen administered as prescribed.
- Keep the respiratory status monitored.
- The labored respirations, cyanosis, and cold clammy skin should be under observation.
- Promote coughing and deep breathing and also the use of incentives Pyrometer.
- Keep the patient in a semi- fowler position to facilitate breathing.
- Make sure to promote rest.
- There should also be looking after the Promotion of nutrition.
- Administer the antibiotics in time.
- Make sure that there is a Prevent of further infection.
- Educate patients on the importance of energy conservation and effective airway clearance, nutrition, as well as coughing and deep breathing.
- Administer the supplemental oxygen as appropriate.
- Keep monitoring pulse oximetry.
- Provide a high calorie, high protein diet with small frequent meals.
- Let the patient be taking 3L of fluids.
- Give a balanced rest activity.
- Prevent the spread of infection by hand.
- washing and the proper disposal of secretions.
- Administer antibiotics as prescribed.
Anatomical location and pattern of findings is significant because they may align with characteristics typical of specific kinds of pneumonia. For instance:
- Multiple small abscesses occur in staphylococcal pneumonia.
- Interstitial airspace infiltrates are linked to moraxella.
- Patchy lower lobe infiltrates are characteristic of mycoplasmal pneumonia.
- A funnel-shaped interstitial pattern in one lower lobe is a trait of chlamydial pneumonia.
- Multiple lobar involvement is typical of Legionnaire’s disease.
Practitioners match laboratory tests and x-ray findings to clinical symptoms. This enables them to sort out pneumonia from other conditions and identify specific types of pneumonia.
may be enough to make a presumptive or suspected diagnosis. However, a definitive diagnosis requires proof of the causative agent in a laboratory finding.